ARTICLE

April 29, 2014

让孩子找到开启知识大门的钥匙

很多家长来信说他的孩子在课堂上坐不住,上课不专心,不时会找旁边人讲话,干扰老师上课,该怎么办?

因为每个孩子的情况不一样,所以没有统一的答案。但是在家长找医生看,让孩子吃药之前,先静下来想一想,这有可能是纪律的问题吗?孩子是否从小没有养成听大人话的习惯,所以在课堂上会不听老师的话?

古人说:「教妇新来,教子婴孩」,好的习惯需要从小养成。那么,怎么让孩子养成安静坐着上课的习惯呢?

从经验得之,最好的方法是从小抱着他亲子共读。因为亲子共读时,孩子被父母亲抱着,这个安全感是最重要的需求,它需要先被满足,孩子才会有其它的需求。阅读时,他必须坐着,所以当父母跟孩子念书的时间愈长,他坐的时间就愈久了。

世界上所有的孩子都喜欢听故事,而阅读正是纸本的故事,所以父母完全不必担心自己口才不好,不会讲故事。孩子要的是你陪伴他的心,他才不在乎你的口才呢!

阅读是想像力的发挥,而想像力是创造力的根本,阅读使他比别人知道的多,让他有成就感,并使他在二十一世纪的竞争上立于不败之地,因为我们的眼睛看字是耳朵听话的三倍(眼睛一分钟可看六百六十八字,嘴巴说话一分钟最快才能讲二百五十字),所以有阅读能力的孩子在资讯的吸取上会比别人快,这会带给他成就感,使他愿意再深入阅读,成为一个正向的循环。

阅读是一个打开人类知识门的钥匙,我总认为父母给孩子最好的礼物是,带他进入阅读的世界,使他一生一世受用不尽。

本文摘自《洪兰老师开书单1:良书相伴,快乐成长》 

May 14, 2014

Read, Kids, Read

As an uncle I’m inconsistent about too many things.

Birthdays, for example. My nephew Mark had one on Sunday, and I didn’t remember — and send a text — until 10 p.m., by which point he was asleep.

School productions, too. I saw my niece Bella in "Seussical: The Musical” but missed "The Wiz.” She played Toto, a feat of trans-species transmogrification that not even Meryl, with all of her accents, has pulled off.

But about books, I’m steady. Relentless. I’m incessantly asking my nephews and nieces what they’re reading and why they’re not reading more. I’m reliably hurling novels at them, and also at friends’ kids. I may well be responsible for 10 percent of all sales of "The Fault in Our Stars,” a teenage love story to be released as a movie next month. Never have I spent money with fewer regrets, because I believe in reading — not just in its power to transport but in its power to transform.

So I was crestfallen on Monday, when a new report by Common Sense Media came out. It showed that 30 years ago, only 8 percent of 13-year-olds and 9 percent of 17-year-olds said that they "hardly ever” or never read for pleasure. Today, 22 percent of 13-year-olds and 27 percent of 17-year-olds say that. Fewer than 20 percent of 17-year-olds now read for pleasure "almost every day.” Back in 1984, 31 percent did. What a marked and depressing change.

I know, I know: This sounds like a fogy’s crotchety lament. Or, worse, like self-interest. Professional writers arguing for vigorous reading are dinosaurs begging for a last breath. We’re panhandlers with a better vocabulary.

But I’m coming at this differently, as someone persuaded that reading does things — to the brain, heart and spirit — that movies, television, video games and the rest of it cannot.

There’s research on this, and it’s cited in a recent article in The Guardian by Dan Hurley, who wrote that after "three years interviewing psychologists and neuroscientists around the world,” he’d concluded that "reading and intelligence have a relationship so close as to be symbiotic.”

In terms of smarts and success, is reading causative or merely correlated? Which comes first, "The Hardy Boys” or the hardy mind? That’s difficult to unravel, but several studies have suggested that people who read fiction, reveling in its analysis of character and motivation, are more adept at reading people, too: at sizing up the social whirl around them.They’re more empathetic. God knows we need that.

Late last year, neuroscientists at Emory University reported enhanced neural activity in people who’d been given a regular course of daily reading, which seemed to jog the brain: to raise its game, if you will.

Some experts have doubts about that experiment’s methodology, but I’m struck by how its findings track something that my friends and I often discuss. If we spend our last hours or minutes of the night reading rather than watching television, we wake the next morning with thoughts less jumbled, moods less jangled. Reading has bequeathed what meditation promises. It has smoothed and focused us.

Maybe that’s about the quiet of reading, the pace of it. At Success Academy Charter Schools in New York City, whose students significantly outperform most peers statewide, the youngest kids all learn and play chess, in part because it hones "the ability to focus and concentrate,” said Sean O’Hanlon, who supervises the program. Doesn’t reading do the same?

Daniel Willingham, a psychology professor at the University of Virginia, framed it as a potentially crucial corrective to the rapid metabolism and sensory overload of digital technology. He told me that it can demonstrate to kids that there’s payoff in "doing something taxing, in delayed gratification.” A new book of his, "Raising Kids Who Read,” will be published later this year.

Before talking with him, I arranged a conference call with David Levithan and Amanda Maciel. Both have written fiction in the young adult genre, whose current robustness is cause to rejoice, and they rightly noted that the intensity of the connection that a person feels to a favorite novel, with which he or she spends eight or 10 or 20 hours, is unlike any response to a movie.

That observation brought to mind a moment in "The Fault in Our Stars” when one of the protagonists says that sometimes, "You read a book and it fills you with this weird evangelical zeal, and you become convinced that the shattered world will never be put back together unless and until all living humans read the book.”

Books are personal, passionate. They stir emotions and spark thoughts in a manner all their own, and I’m convinced that the shattered world has less hope for repair if reading becomes an ever smaller part of it.

Article from Frank Burni, The Opinion Pages, The New York Times

May 12, 2o14

July 31, 2014

**最好让幼儿时期的孩子,尽情享受的绘本世界**

说到幼儿时期的特征,就是「现实与非现实的境界暧昧不明」。「无法区别现实与非现实」=「懵懂未明」的状态,让人非常容易投入幻想的世界。因为现实与非现实的境界还很暧昧,可以毫不抗拒地接受「不可能」。在这部分,大人因为已经认清事实,很遗憾地,再也无法接纳「不可能」。

我有一本很喜欢的绘本叫《好大的萝卜》,为了拔出长得比爷爷还要大的萝卜,出动了奶奶和孙子,连猫和老鼠都来帮忙。但是看在已经懂事的大人眼里,这真是个破绽百出的故事,大人会一一去意识到不合理的部分。

可是幼童就不一样。在小朋友的脑袋里,萝卜理所当然会长得比爷爷还大,猫跟老鼠也可以和平共处;不仅如此,在幼儿的眼中,绘本中的动物和人物、交通工具都有可能是真的在动。事实上,我和小朋友一起读绘本的时候,不少孩子会跟我说:「老师,绘本里面的OO动了!」像这样沉浸在绘本的世界里,在不可能的世界与现实之间来回穿梭,自由享受非现实的世界,是幼儿时期的特权。而这顶多只能持续到五、六岁,是非常短暂的一段时期。因为,我格外希望家长能让处于这段能尽情遨游在绘本世界年龄的孩子读绘本。

在这个时期让孩子亲近绘本,还有其他很棒的好处;也就是穿梭在幻想世界,让孩子的想像力变得丰富,而想像力与各种能力都有关联。

摘自《共读绘本,教出全人格的孩子》

Aug 12, 2014

**用绘本提升孩子的认知能力**

孩子是不是会做出「想要用手指抓东西的动作」?如果看到孩子抓握东西,就是开始绘本课程的时机到了。

目的:促进对人与物的名称认知,帮助孩子记住名称

要提升婴儿的认知能力,必须反复耐心地教导,例如拿杯子给婴幼儿看,并说明「这是杯子」。让婴幼儿看实物并教导是最理想的,但有不少东西无法随时拿出实物,例如说狮子、熊这类动物,这时候绘本就可以派上用场;更深入地说,是绘本上的「图画」可派上用场。

若是图画,即使是家中没有的物品,也可以让孩子观看并教导,同时可以不断地提供孩子接触新事物的机会。在这个时期,比起念绘本给孩子听,「让孩子看图画,对孩子说话」具有更重要的意义。

摘自《共读绘本,教出全人格的孩子》

Aug 15, 2014

**读的人和听的人之间的交流**

绘本是通过精彩的语言和图画来呈现的,但这些语言和图画需要由读的人传达给听的人。父母,也就是读绘本的人,可以把绘本中呈现的最美的语言转化为自己的东西,然后用声音表述出来,表述得越喜悦、约快乐、越美,读绘本时的体验就能越长久地留在孩子的生命里,经久地向其述说。这才是爸爸妈妈或老师给孩子读绘本的真谛。

我曾经向将要成为幼儿园或小学老师的师范学生们提过一些问题:当我问他们是否知道《古利和古拉》这本书时,几乎所有的人都说"知道;当我接着再问作者是谁时,回答"不知道或是"忘了的人就多了;后来当再被问到是谁念给自己听时,几乎所有的人都能回答上来。

从这个角度讲,绘本实际上是从讲述者那里来,是讲述者和听者间爱的结晶。

摘自《打开绘本之眼》

Aug 26, 2014

绘本教育在国內外盛行已有一段时间,然而总有人嫌绘本贵,图画多、字少,达不到给孩子识字的作用。

林颖儿在绘本的世界长大,阅读了六年的绘本,如今她已经能够自由阅读文字书了。只把绘本当作识字用途,会不会是我们太大材小用?

"大嘴蛙正在抓苍蝇的时候,看见一只绿色的大鱷鱼。大嘴蛙说:喂,我是大嘴蛙,我最爱吃苍蝇。你爱吃什么?小颖慧坐在妈妈陈爱玲怀里,眼珠子眨也不眨。她定睛看著绘本內凸起的鱷鱼有尖尖的牙齿,姐姐颖儿伸出手指触摸著。陈爱玲微微推挤书页,书內立体设计的鱷鱼一放一缩:"我爱吃美味可口的大嘴蛙。说毕,母女三人笑了起来。

绘本,凭著精美的图画和少少的文字,在短短二三十页里,就能构出一副新世界。普世的故事价值与趣味让它们在各文化间流通无隔阂;图像的美感,力量也无远弗届。市面上不少畅销绘本成书于几十年前,在时光的流沙河中,它们依然漂渡如故。绘本是如此深受喜爱,在各方推动下,早在各国形成一股潮流。

陈爱玲的长女林颖儿3岁开始沉浸于绘本世界,晃眼已过了6年光阴。小女儿颖慧才两岁,也开始听绘本故事了。

家中的书橱已塞满,"我最近刚上网定了一箱,迟点会寄过来,陈爱玲俏皮地眨眨眼,我想站在不远处林贵文,应该也听到了。


母女赶上读绘本热潮

颖儿3岁的时候,幼儿园正推广亲子共读。学校设定了个条例:每位家长付三十多块买一本绘本,彼此交换著看,一年下来,每个孩子都能阅读到二十多本。

差不多同时期,国內知名绘本阅读推广团体"绘本雨林协会成立,母女俩赶上热潮,每週日都到吴国强老师那里听一个小时的绘本故事。原本只是带孩子去听,希望培养孩子的阅读习惯,结果听著听著,陈爱玲自己也成了绘本的忠实粉丝。

现在,每晚孩子就寢前,陈爱玲都会给孩子讲故事,风雨不改。若是工作忙得无法抽身,讲故事的责任就交由先生林贵文代劳。


讲故事是日常功课

陈爱玲是华小教师,林贵文是软体设计师,夫妻俩工作忙碌,但每晚还是会抽空给孩子讲故事,谁有空谁讲。

"要讲故事之前一定要温习,先把故事看过一遍,看要用什么语气来表现。陈爱玲解释,如果不这么做,正式上场时会不投入,"像遇到人物说话时,声调没变,孩子听了会像听不明白,傻傻地看著妳,好像在问:妈咪,妳在做什么?

当孩子的语言能力成熟后,这过程会变得较轻鬆。"有时工作真的太累,我会反过来要求女儿讲故事给我听。有趣的是,即便是临时上阵,长女颖儿都能应付自如,有时还能讲出另一种趣味来。


当我们在一起阅读

访问在陈爱玲家中客厅进行,刚开始,两个女儿都很好奇,一直在母亲身边不停打转,但时间久了,陌生人渐渐失去吸引力,她们的视线与焦点渐渐回到绘本上。小颖慧跟爸爸坐在书橱旁,共同翻看绘本,颖儿则端坐沙发,沉醉于她的书香世界。

"我曾经带她(颖儿)跟我去上课,我在前面上课,她在后面看书,她竟然可以看三个小时不动。

今天很多家长懊恼该使用什么办法,才能让孩子爱上书,以颖儿为例,应该就是亲子共读跟绘本吧?

陈爱玲说,颖儿喜爱阅读,到了相当沉迷的地步,陈爱玲每晚睡前都会到她房里检查,看她是否真的有关灯睡觉,还是在偷偷看书。

"妳试过躲在被窝里,用手电筒照著书本来看吗?颖儿偷笑,点点头:"嗯。


读绘本提升语言能力

跟其他小孩一样,9岁的颖儿也玩智能手机,但由于手机里没什么游戏,很快就兴味索然。

陈爱玲给我播放一则影片,画面中的颖儿正表演"魔术给妹妹看。她笑吟吟地讲啊讲,不曾中断,先前不经排练,也没有对话剧本,她的表演却能够一直进行,直到结束。

陈爱玲认为,绘本阅读有助提升孩子的语言能力。的確,颖儿对于提问都能头头是道,当妈妈在受访,她也能够主动给妹妹讲故事。

"她的文笔、表达能力比较强。幼儿园的时候,老师给班上同学读《静夜思》,老师说,全班只有颖儿一个同学举手发问,要求老师解释每个句子的意思。


睡前故事拉近彼此

科技大举入侵,很多人即使用餐也机不离手,嘴巴只管用力嚼,却很可能不知道自己吃了什么,一副心思全在荧幕上,更別说跟一起用餐的人互动了。

绘本,正好能让一家人的互动变得密切。每晚的睡前故事,一点点加深了亲子情感;为了能够每晚给孩子说故事,夫妻间也必须合作无间,才能互相支援。有了绘本,孩子可以在父母忙碌时,扮演讲故事给手足听的角色;在客厅摊开一本有趣的绘本,大家都会走过来探头探脑。踏进陈爱玲家中,搬出绘本,就可以感觉到一个家的向心力。


让孩子选择爱看的书

如何选择適当的绘本给孩子,进而引发他们的阅读兴趣?这是一门学问。陈爱玲家中的书橱塞满了各式各样的绘本,以形式来分,有洞洞书、游戏书、无字书、触摸书、3D立体书、布书、声音书……

以內容划分的话,那种类就更多了,比如亲情、友情、感恩、健康、节日、情绪等,各种適合孩子的主题。"有些抽象的事物比较难透过言语表达,比如生命教育,这些都可以通过绘本带给孩子。

逛书展时,陈爱玲让颖儿自由选择要购买的书,她会暗中观察颖儿的兴趣,下次替孩子购书时,会按照他们的喜好走。她说,女儿相当会分辨哪种书適合自己,遇到现阶段不適合的书,她的孩子会说:"我还小,干嘛看爱情的书,鬼故事看了会做噩梦。


小结:绘本给你我带来快乐

访问结束,陈爱玲家的桌上、地上摊著很多绘本,小孩们不时翻翻这里、动动那里,虽然这些书她们很多都已看过,颖儿甚至已看完全部,但每次再跟它们相遇,就像遇到了老朋友,忍不住要跟对方寒暄。

就连摄影师,也站在书架前恋恋不捨。

有人说,绘本不只是画给小孩,更是画给大人的,从绘本里,我们重新拾掇遗失了的童真,与单纯的快乐。


中国报副刊 25/8/2014 报导
报导:方俊心
图:李志强

网页:http://www.chinapress.com.my/node/554764